澳洲management assignment代写 改善人际关系

让两个对彼此存有偏见的个人或团体进行密切接触,可能会改善他们对彼此的想法和感觉。然而,由于“多元无知”,即害怕被拒绝和误解别人不会回报他们的感受,即便是将两个个人或团体聚在一起,说起来也容易做起来难。例如,Cairns和Hewstone(2002年,第427页)发现,新教和天主教的女孩虽然想要交往,但却因感到尴尬而不愿与对方交往。尽管如此,人们普遍认为,接触,甚至扩大接触,确实可以改善对彼此抱有偏见的群体之间的关系。例如,Tausch等人(2010,p.426)发现,黑人和白人之间的友好接触越多,他们对彼此的态度越好。这种积极态度的增长也延伸到其他外群体,如西班牙裔。这不仅表明,心理学家使用的接触策略可以改善人际关系,而且还表明,某种形式的长期接触可以改善与其他群体的关系。此外,甚至技术也被用来帮助改善关系,通过使用电脑作为一种延伸的接触的形式。例如,Lin和Cao(2017)发现,使用基于视频和文本的接触可以改善中国大陆人和香港人之间的关系。然而,不同的方法有不同的效果,与基于文本的接触相比,基于视频的接触在改善参与者对个体外群体成员的态度方面有更大的影响。然而,基于文本的方法对参与者对外群体的态度有更强的影响。这项研究传达了技术在改善群体间关系方面的重要性,因为它可以让那些通常不会互相接触的群体进行交流,并改善他们对彼此的整体态度。无论如何,这项研究表明,当你想要将结果推广到整个外群体时,基于文本的方法可能更适合于改善群体间的关系。到目前为止,所有的例子都是基于积极接触,但消极接触也对态度有很大的影响。Techakesari(2015)发现,负性接触最终会增加群体间的焦虑、偏见和负性误解,而且在预测态度方面更一致。本研究表明,消极接触与积极接触的效果相反,对态度的影响更大。这一观点得到了Graff, Poalini和Rubin(2015)的支持,他们发现消极接触对形成外群体态度的影响更大。然而,Graff等人(2015)也发现,阳性接触比阴性接触发生的可能性高3倍。这个例子支持这样一种观点:接触不一定是一种有效的方法,因为它取决于接触发生的方式,无论是积极的还是消极的。Allport(1954)提出,要使接触成功,必须有最佳的条件。这些条件包括但不限于地位平等、有共同目标的团体、团体间的合作以及当局的支持。例如,当人们认为对立群体的地位不平等时,它所产生的态度只能证明不平等是合理的(Pettigrew, 1988;1987岁的斯蒂芬p.430)。因此,为了实现积极的接触和群体间关系的成功,必须满足这些条件。总的来说,虽然让人们聚在一起可能很难,但使用技术的新方法使这变得更容易,如果做得对,这将导致积极的接触,可以实现对外界成员的态度的巨大改善。因此,这适用于整个群体,因此增加了群体间的关系,并使之成为在大多数情况下改善关系的有效措施。

澳洲management assignment代写 改善人际关系

Bringing two individuals or groups who hold prejudice towards each other into close contact may improve the way they think and feel about each other. However, even bringing two individuals or groups together could be easier said than done due to “pluralistic ignorance”, the fear of rejection and misconception that others do not reciprocate their feelings. For instance, Cairns and Hewstone (2002, p.427) found that protestant and catholic girls did not mix with each other as they felt awkward despite wanting to mix. Despite this it is widely believed that contact, even extended contact, could indeed improve relations between groups who hold prejudice towards each other. For example, Tausch et al (2010, p.426) found that Blacks and Whites have better attitudes towards each other when they have had more friendly contact with one another. This increase in positive attitudes also extended towards other outgroups, such as Hispanics. Not only does this show that contact strategies used by psychologists can improve relations, but it also shows a form of extended contact can improve relations with other groups. Furthermore, even technology has been used to help improve relations by using computer mediated contact as a form of extended contact. For example, Lin and Cao (2017) found that the use of video-based and text-based contact improved relations between Mainland Chinese and Hong-Kong people. Nevertheless, the different methods had different effects, video-based contact had a greater influence in improving participants’ attitudes towards an individual outgroup member when compared to text-based. However, text-based methods had a stronger effect on the participants attitudes towards the outgroup. This study conveys how important technology could be in improving intergroup relations as it allows groups who may not normally come into contact with each other to communicate and improve their overall attitudes towards each other. Anyhow, this study shows that text-based methods may be better suited to improving intergroup relations when you want the results to generalise to the whole outgroup. All the examples so far have been based on positive contact, but negative contact also has a great effect on attitudes. Techakesari (2015) found that negative contact ultimately increased intergroup anxiety, prejudice, and negative misperceptions and was more consistent in predicting attitudes. This research indicates that negative contact has the opposite effect to positive contact and could have a larger impact on attitudes. This idea is backed up by Graff, Poalini and Rubin (2015) as they found that negative contact was more influential when it came to forming outgroup attitudes. However, Graff et al (2015) also discovered that positive contact was 3 times more likely to occur than negative contact. This example supports the idea that contact may not always be an effective method to use as it will depend on the way in which the contact occurs, whether it is positive or negative. Allport (1954) proposed that there are optimal conditions that must be in place for contact to be successful. These conditions include but are not limited to, groups being of equal status, having a common goal, intergroup cooperation, and the support of authorities. For instance, when people perceive the opposing group to be of unequal status it creates attitudes that only justify the inequalities (Pettigrew, 1988; Stephan, 1987, p.430). So therefore, to achieve positive contact and for intergroup relations to be successful these conditions must be met. Overall, though it may be hard to bring people together, new ways using technology are making this easier and when done right this leads to positive contact that can achieve a great improvement on the attitudes towards outgroup members. Consequently, this generalises to the whole group, therefore increasing intergroup relations and rendering it an effective measure to improve relations in most situations.

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