“The structural property which makes the biological pore suitable for DNA sequencing is a constriction site at which the passing strand exerts the most influence on the electrical current”. The leng of the passage mostly determines how many bases influes the electric potential. The number of bases that is “read” concurrently at a particular time. Thenumber of reads should be low to allow identification of electric current for each different combinations of bases and high to allow the overlap between some subsequent combination of bases. This develops advantage while basecalling to allow baes to read as many times it is possible.To initiate the sequencing, the DNA strand first needs to move towards one side of the pore which is also named as cis-side. At this pore the electric field is captured and it is threaded through the pore and comes out at the other pore called trans-side.Here two forces are taken into consideration. Electrophoretic force is induced by positive electric field which is appied at the trans-side and attracts the negatively charged DNA and drags it in. The positive particles move to the opposite direction as the negative particles leave the cis-side. The DNA strands gets strengthened by the formation of positively charged zone around the cis entrance of the pore. The electro-osmotic flow force is induced by ion flow and net water through the pore which is influenced by strand translocation.
source ： https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770995/
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