澳洲社会学作业代写 路德教

该消息来源强烈反对一种观点,即路德的教义影响了人们对路德教的支持。佩提格里解释了有多少路德作品的老主顾甚至看不懂佐梅雷的作品。这一时期的德国识字率非常低。这意味着许多购买路德作品的人不会理解这些小册子和书籍。很明显,很多人购买路德的作品是因为媒介的新颖性,而不是出于知识分子的兴趣。佩提格里认为,印刷术本身通过大量生产路德的作品而不是通过他的新教义改革而使他大受欢迎。历史学家c·斯科特·迪克森(C. Scott Dixon)进一步推动了印刷文字作为媒介的观点。迪克森认为,由于当时人们疯狂地购买小册子,印刷术使得路德的作品得以在德国各地传播。狄克逊强调,由于普遍文盲,口头语言的替代品只能通过视觉形式的沟通,如印刷图像,小册子插图或木刻,这是早期改革者非常有效地利用。[14]迪克森提供了一个可信的洞察路德的时间。“媒介”一词的直接引用显然意味着路德利用新技术影响了德国各地更多的人,并回到了人们没有受过教育、对宗教的神学理解很少或根本没有的事实。狄克逊和佩提格里的信念在某种程度上是相似的;他们都得出了同样的结论,即路德作品的普及很可能是一种媒介,而不是民众受到路德教义改革的影响。这种新媒介使全体人民兴奋不已。这是门外汉第一次有机会了解受教育和宗教的世界。木刻在学者和农民之间架起了一座桥梁。在新教的宣传中,木刻是最吸引人的。只有40%的城镇居民、5%的农村男子和几乎没有妇女识字。所以,这些照片更容易被接受。R. W.斯克里布纳说,“印刷的宣传材料是面向整个德国人民的,但很少有人能读懂,因为改革是在一个文化水平有限的社会中出现的……听或看将是获得他们关于宗教改革“[17]”知识的主要手段。斯克里布纳的观点和周圣泰的观点一样,两位历史学家都认为,在解释是什么吸引了人们去看路德的作品时,木刻的重要性是一致的。木刻的创造性使得简单的信息和意识形态可以用一个制作精良的图像来描绘。

澳洲社会学作业代写 路德教

The source strongly goes against an argument that Luther’s doctrine was influencing the population in favour of Lutheranism. Pettegree explains how many regular buyers of Luther’s works could not even read which was the case for Zomere. German literacy rates during this period were very low. This implies that many buyers of Luther’s works would not have understood the pamphlets and books. It is made clear in the source that much of the population were buying Luther’s works due to the novelty of the medium rather than out of intellectual interest. Pettegree argues that the printing press itself created Luther’s popularity by the mass production of his works – not his new doctrinal reforms. This view of the printed word being a medium is further pushed by the historian C. Scott Dixon. Dixon believes that the printing press allowed Luther’s work to spread across Germany due to the craze of buying pamphlets at the time. Dixon emphasises that due to widespread illiteracy, alternatives to the spoken word were only offered by visual forms of communication, such as the printed image, the pamphlet illustration or the woodcut, which the early reformers harnessed very effectively.[14] Dixon provides a credible insight into the time of Luther. The direct reference of the term ‘medium’ clearly implies that Luther exploited the new technology to reach more people across Germany and returns to the fact that the population was uneducated and had little or no theological understanding of religion. Dixon and Pettegree’s beliefs are similar to an extent; they both arrive at the same conclusion, that the popularity of Luther’s works was most likely a medium, instead of the population being influenced by Luthers doctrinal reforms.The new medium excited the entire population. For the first time laymen were given a window into the educated and religious world. Woodcuts provided this bridge between the academics and the peasants. In Protestant propaganda, woodcuts were what attracted people the most.[15] Only 40 per cent of townsmen, 5 per cent of rural men and virtually no women were literate[16]. So, the pictures were much more easily accepted. R. W. Scribner stated, “printed propaganda was addressed to the entire German people, but few of them were able to read it, for the Reformation emerged in a society with limited literacy. . . listening or looking would have been the major means of acquiring their knowledge of the Reformation”[17]. The view proposed by Scribner is like that of S.T. Chow, both historians agree on the importance of woodcuts when explaining what attracted people to Luther’s works. The creativity of woodcuts allowed for simple messages and ideologies to be portrayed using a well-produced image.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注